Resistance against British rule

The Indian National Congress (Congress Party)

The nationalist and independence movement in British India was mostly a reaction to the British rule and the empire trying to impose and spread Western civilisation. The movement can generally be attributed to two mainstream groups: the moderate Indian National Congress and Muslim groups which eventually formed the Muslim League in 1906. However, several other groups contributed to the resistance and opposition against the British Raj; Khudai Khidmatgar, a Pashtun non-violent movement, is one of them.

The Indian National Congress (Congress Party) was created in 1885 after young leaders in the area of Bombay had already created various local political organisations. They initially fought for the right to take tests for Indian Civil Service which was promised by the Queen. When the British Raj was established, Queen Victoria promised Indians they could become part of the Indian Civil Service and work as top civil servants in the administration of the colony.

Because the Congress fought for upper class rights initially, it was also perceived as an elitist party, serving the interest of the Indian upper class. Gradually, the Congress began fighting for more economic rights for Indian people. The National Congress was in favour of capitalistic economic development and secular democracy.

Although the Congress wanted to represent all India, they did not have enough support from the Muslim League. Furthermore, by 1907, the organisation was split between radicals and moderates. Radicals wanted to use more dramatic revolutionary means to overthrow the British ru...

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