The novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is set in Regency England, and the plot develops over the course of almost two years. The Regency Era is generally considered to refer to the period 1811-1820.
The time setting is approximately contemporary with the time of publication, as the novel was published in 1813.
Jane Austen does not devote many descriptions to the physical setting. Although the events happen in a variety of places, these places are rarely described, the main exception being Mr Darcy’s estate, Pemberley, where the physical setting takes on a particular significance. Austen even makes a direct note on her choice, emphasising the significance of one of the few places she does describe:
It is not the object of this work to give a description of Derbyshire, nor of any of the remarkable places through which their route thither lay; Oxford, Blenheim, Warwick, Kenilworth, Birmingham, etc. are sufficiently known. A small part of Derbyshire is all the present concern. (p. 167)
Through this observation, the author suggests that, from Elizabeth's trip, only Pemberley is important because of what it reveals about the male protagonist, Mr Darcy.
The physical setting includes references to both real places in England and imaginary ones. London, Hertfordshire, Brighton, and Derbyshire are real places in the UK. However, the estates and other towns mentioned are fictional: Longbourn, Netherfield, Meryton, Pemberley...