Language

Meter: prose and verse

Language is very important in Shakespeare: The way a character speaks reflects the character’s social status as well as the character’s state of mind. This means that you will be able to make some pretty impressive analytical points about Romeo and Juliet, just by paying attention to the language.

The dominant style of language in Romeo and Juliet is verse and to a lesser extent prose. Whereas prose is what we would call ordinary language, verse is characterized by a specific rhythm called meter.

Verse: iambic pentameter

The dominant type of verse spoken in the play is iambic pentameter, which is also called blank verse. It consists of a line of verse written with a five-beat rhythm where an unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed syllable. The combination of a short syllable with a long syllable is known as an “iamb”. When Romeo says his very first words to Juliet, he speaks in this type of meter. We have underlined the stressed syllables here:

If I profane with my unworthiest hand
This holy shrine, the gentle sin is this:
My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand
To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. (1.5.92-95)

You will see that each line has five underlined stressed syllables. If you read these four lines out loud to yourself, you should be able to hear the rhythm. The steady beat helped the actors remember their many lines.

Iambic pentameter (or verse in general) generally signals high social status in Shakespeare’s plays. Romeo and Juliet is a play about upper-class people where most of the characters are noblemen or royalty. Thus, characters such as Romeo, Juliet, and Prince Escalus speak in iambic pentameter. When Romeo addresses Juliet in the example above, his use of blank verse shows her (and us) that he is a nobleman.

Note that you will sometimes see characters completing each other’s verse to make up a unit of, say, five feet. This is sometimes used to suggest that the two characters are close – for example, lovers or close friends. Most book versions of the play today indicate this via the placement of lines on the page.

Prose

Prose – ordinary language without meter – can be used to signal low social status, which i...

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